Observations and Monitoring

Effective climate services require observations of various types and of adequate quality and quantity and at the right place and at the right time. Both surface-based and space observations are required of physical and chemical climate variables of the atmosphere, land, and oceans, including hydrologic and carbon cycles and the cryosphere. In addition, delivering useful climate services also requires the availability of socio-economic, biological, and environmental data, for national use in particular. Physical and chemical climate observations, along with complementary socio-economic and other data, must be effectively integrated to develop and provide users of climate services—farmers, public health officials, disaster risk reduction managers, water resources administrators and the like—with information that will help them minimize losses due to climate variability and change and to manage natural and human systems effectively.